Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with several oropharyngeal abnormalities, including dysbiosis in the oral microbiota. Since the oral cavity is the start of the gastrointestinal tract, this strengthens and extends the notion of a microbial gut-brain axis in ASD and even raises the question whether a microbial oral-brain axis exists. It is clear that oral bacteria can find their way to the brain through a number of pathways following routine dental procedures. A connection between the oral microbiota and a number of other brain disorders has been reported. As the evidence so far for an association between the oral microbiota and ASDs rests on a few reports only, further studies in this field are necessary. The current review discusses a possible relationship between oral bacteria and the biologic and symptomologic aspects of ASD, focusing on the clinical implications for diagnostic and therapeutic development.

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